Siglo XXI ¿sociedad de la información o sociedad de la formación?

Este siglo XXI, que pronto cumplirá su primera década, ha sido etiquetado con la era o sociedad de la información, entre otras razones, porque los sujetos de las sociedades urbanas estamos inmersos en un medio ambiente informacional que nos inunda desde nuestro nacimiento de forma diaria. La información en sus múltiples formas (oral, textual, hipertextual, audiovisual, icónica, auditiva, multimedia, …) es la materia prima de nuestra existencia moderna. Nuestra civilización actual, entre otros rasgos, se diferencia de las precedentes en que la socialización de cada individuo requiere de éste el dominio de los códigos y formas simbólicas que le permitan entender la ingente cantidad de información que recibe, y a su vez, esté en condiciones de producir y difundir información en distintos formatos. Por ello, pudiéramos también considerar que este siglo XXI, además de ser el de la sociedad de la información, es también el siglo de la formación.
Nunca, en ningún periodo histórico anterior, fue tan necesaria la educación o formación de los individuos para integrarse socialmente. Sin una formación básica escolar difícilmente un sujeto podrá ser un ciudadano autónomo y consciente de sus responsabilidades y derechos sociales. Su promoción laboral, sus valores y actitudes ante la vida, sus prácticas culturales y de ocio, sus vínculos y relaciones afectivas con los demás, su comportamiento democrático con los que le rodean y con la sociedad, …, estará condicionado por la cantidad y calidad de la formación recibida. Este es un hecho en donde coincíden los expertos.

Hace pocas décadas atrás la formación necesaria para tener “éxito” social, profesional y personal se reducía a la que un sujeto recibía en su periodo vital de la infancia y la juventud, es decir, en el periodo escolar y el universitario. Un título superior prácticamente garantizaba de por vida estabilidad y ascenso social. Esa formación inicial era casi suficiente para el ejercicio profesional sin sobresaltos ni altibajos. No había necesidad de reciclaje ya que el conocimiento existente era estable y apenas cambiaba.

Hoy, por el contrario, la innovación, el cambio, la transformación, la mutabilidad, son las características del conocimiento que generamos las personas, las instituciones, las universidades, las empresas o cualquier otro grupo social humano. Nuestro tiempo postmoderno es una época líquida por utilizar el adjetivo puesto de moda por Bauman. Frente a la solidez, la perdurabilidad del pensamiento y de los sistemas sociales del pasado hoy permanentemente están bullendo nuevas ideas, nuevas prácticas y nuevos fenómenos que convierten en inciertos y efímeros los saberes y certezas que poseemos. La inestabilidad, la provisionalidad, la fugacidad son consustanciales al presente tal como otros pensadores postmodernos ya habían acertado a definir.

La cultura del siglo XXI es multimediática, es decir, construida a través de múltiples y variados formas simbólicas y difundida mediante tecnologías diversas, pero sobre todo es líquida, es decir inaprensible, variable, intercambiable, interactiva, de consumo inmediato, en permanente transformación. Frente a la solidez de las certezas de la cultura decimonónica el presente postmoderno nos ha traído un tiempo de relativismo y mutabilidad del conocimiento, de modas efímeras de las ideas, valores y costumbres, de permisividad de las diferencias, de incertidumbre sobre el futuro mediato.

La complejidad y el cambio son los rasgos que mejor definen el tiempo actual. Por ello, la educación o formación no puede ser reducida o acotada a una etapa concreta de la vida de un sujeto. Por el contrario, la formación tiene que ser permanente, continua desde el nacimiento a la muerte. Esta visión de la educación como un elemento fundamental que acompaña al individuo es un concepto nacido en la segunda mital del siglo XX impulsado por instituciones internacionales como la UNESCO. Pero es ahora, en esta primera década del siglo XXI, cuando la educación permanente o a lo largo de toda la vida empieza a ser una realidad en nuestra sociedad.

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